A member of a reformed section of the Christian church based upon the ideas of John Calvin in the Reformation. The group was against the appointment of non-religious people, such as Kings, being appointed as of right into the structure of the church. Instead, the ultimate authority in the Presbyterian Church is The Bible, which guided a mix of clergy and lay people meeting in a synod. Presbyterian removed statues and pictures as iconoclasm in the Reformation. Presbyterianism was widespread in the south of Scotland and the north of England. The group was persecuted and gave rise to covenantors in the times of King Charles I, Charles II and James II (1625-1685AD in total). Alexander Peden is mentioned elsewhere. This did not stop the group and in 1690AD William III recognised Presbyterianism as the official Church of Scotland. The persecution of group often led to enforced transportation and emigration to Ireland and North America.