Keys to the Past


Starting with Q - 6 Glossary entries found.

In this section of the website you can find out more about specialist and technical terms archaeologists sometimes use. There is also lots more information about famous people and historic events in the north-east.

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Z 1-9


also called The Society of Friends
This is a religious organisation founded by George Fox (1624-1691AD) in the 1650s AD. Fox was unable to find any church satisfying. He first started itinerant preaching, but found others likeminded. A society was formed who called themselves the 'Children of Light' or the 'Friends of Truth' - they were nicknamed the Quakers, as they shook during worship. Quakers rejected any organised secular or spiritual authorities - the members leading the worship themselves and being guided by a found inner light. Quakers were and are pacifists and non-political. They were persecuted till 1689AD, which like Presbyterians entailed imprisonment and enforced transportation. Quakers took up industrial, scientific and social improvements for many. Edward Pease of Darlington was involved in financing the Stockton and Darlington Railway.

Quarry; Quarrying

An excavation from which stone for building and other functions, is obtained by cutting, blasting, etc


Stone or wood projection into a watercourse at which a ship can tie up. This allows the loading/unloading of any cargo or ballast. They are similar to staithes.

Quenching Hole

A chute, or channel, above the doorway in the end wall of a bastle down which water was poured to put out a fire set against the door.

Quern; Quern stones

Querns are simple carved stones used to grind stone to make corn. The oldest type is known as a saddle quern. These have a larger slab of stone as the base. The corn is the placed on the slab, and a smaller stone is used to grind the corn. It is called a saddle stone because the base slab becomes ground away in the centre making it appear a little like a saddle. These usually date to the prehistoric period. The other main type of quern is the rotary quern. This is made up of two circular pieces of stone with a hole through them. A small wooden handle is usually placed in the top one slightly off-centre. This is then used to rotate the top stone against the bottom one. Corn is fed through the central hole.


The stones at the corner of a building, often distinctive of a building style. Escomb style is alternating long and short sides of stones - this can be seen on Anglo-Saxon churches at Escomb (County Durham) and partly surviving at Whittingham (Northumberland).
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Z 1-9