Keys to the Past


Starting with J - 15 Glossary entries found.

In this section of the website you can find out more about specialist and technical terms archaeologists sometimes use. There is also lots more information about famous people and historic events in the north-east.

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Z 1-9


An architectural style used during the earlier part of the Stuart period (1603-1685AD). The name comes from the Latin for James - Jacobus - who was the first British Stuart King.


A follower of King James II from the Latin Jacobus for James. James II (reigned 1685-1688AD) was forced into exile by his son-in-law and daughter, William and Mary of Orange, because of his high-handed manner and conversion to become a Catholic William was invited to land by Parliament, forcing James and his son, (also called James), to flee to France. Supporters of the two James's claims to the throne were forced to flee to, or chose exile in, France. Many Jacobites were Catholics but not exclusively so. The younger James was nicknamed 'The Old Pretender'.
There were several Jacobite rebellions, raids and invasion attempts which all failed, (see 1715 rebellion and 1745 rebellion). These rebellions were partly supported by foreign powers, who (for various reasons), sought the removal of the reigning British monarchs. These powers included France and Spain. Such attempts were made through Scotland (1689AD), Ireland (1690AD), in the North Sea (1708AD), and Scotland again (1719AD) in addition to the major 1715 rebellion and 1745 rebellion, whilst an invasion fleet was readied in 1744AD. Clergy who remained loyal to James and his descendants, though stayed in England, where called Non-Jurors.
Jacobitism survived notionally till 1807AD when James II's second grandson, Cardinal Henry, died - though no further rebellions were made after the 1745 rebellion. Further claimants have not actively pursued their claims.


Jambs are the vertical sides of a window or window frame.

James IV

1473-1513 King of Scotland. His coronation was at Scone in 1488. He married Margaret Tudor, the wife of Henry VIII. Following Henry VIII's invasion of France, James took advantage of the situation by invading England. This lead to the Battle of Flodden.

James Lough

See Lough, James.

James Paine

See Paine, James.

Jekyll, Gertrude; Jekyll

Gertrude Jekyll (1843-1932), created over 400 gardens in the UK, Europe and America; her influence on garden design has been pervasive to this day. She spent most of her life in Surrey, England, latterly at Munstead Wood, Godalming. She ran a garden centre there and bred many new plants. Some of her gardens can be visited.

Her own books about gardening are widely read in modern editions; much has been written about her by others. She contributed over 1,000 articles to Country Life, The Garden and other magazines. A talented painter, photographer, designer and craftswoman; she was much influenced by Arts & Crafts principles.

Her brother, Walter, was a friend of the author, Robert Louis Stevenson; his name may have been borrowed for the title of his famous Jekyll and Hyde story.

Gertrude Jekyll is well known for her association with the English architect, Sir Edwin Lutyens; she collaborated with him on gardens for many of his houses.


A hard black material formed from large individual blocks of wood that have been fossilised. This has been used to create items such as beads from the Early Bronze Age onwards by cutting, shaping and polishing.

Jigger house

A name for an illegal distillery.

John Conyers

See Conyers, John.

John Dobson

See Dobson, John.

John Leland

See Leland, John.

John Smeaton

See Smeaton, John.

John Soane

See Soane, John.

John Wesley

See Wesley, John.
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Z 1-9