Keys to the Past

Local Histories

Starting with C - 32 Settlements found.

A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P Q R S T U W

Capheaton (Northumberland)
The parish of Capheaton lies in southern Northumberland. It encompasses craggy outcrops in the north and rolling countryside in the centre and south. The name Capheaton means the 'chief village of a district' and there is a wide range of archaeological and historical sites in the parish. These vary from Mesolithic finds and upstanding prehistoric remains near Shaftoe, to the park and gardens at Capheaton Hall. The parish is also crossed by the Roman road known as the Devil's Causeway as it travels between Hadrian's Wall north of Portgate and Learchild Roman fort. Capheaton was described in the 19th century as a 'truly Arcadian little village' and has probably changed little from that time....


Carham (Northumberland)
The parish of Carham, which also includes the village of Wark-on-Tweed, is located on the English side of the Scottish-English border. It is this border location which has defined the archaeology of the area, from battles and skirmishes of the 11th century through to regular border conflict throughout medieval times. However, long before Scotland and England were defined as nations, people lived and died in this area. So, what archaeology might we find there?....


Cartington (Northumberland)
The parish of Cartington lies in central Northumberland and is almost entirely made up of high moorland. It stretches from the heights of Mount Pleasant in the east, across Cartington Hill, to the Black Burn in the west. Several streams flow though the parish to join the River Coquet, one of the deepest valleys being created by the Debdon Burn which provided hydroelectric power to Lord Armstrong's Cragside. The name Cartington is Scandinavian in origin and derives from `Kiartan's hill' or `homestead of Kiartan's people.' The parish lies in the valley of the River Coquet and was formerly part of the Middle March on the English side of the Border until the union of the crowns of England and Scotland in 1603; it lies in the heart of the border country. The parish is sparsely populated today but the moorland is rich in upstanding remains, from Bronze Age burials and settlements to a medieval castle and village, suggesting that the area has been continuously populated since prehistoric times. A large portion of the parish lies under forestry plantations and the wooded parkland of Cragside which in themselves may hide further archaeological sites....


Cassop (County Durham)
The parish of Cassop lies in the small valley known as Cassop Vale, to the south-east of Durham. This area was once a hunting ground for the Prince Bishops of Durham. There have been two suggested origins for the name Cassop, Both agree that the second part of the name comes from the Old English word 'hop' meaning valley. Some have suggested that the first part comes from the Anglo-Saxon name Casa, so the whole meaning of the placename would be 'Casa's Valley'; others have suggested that it comes from 'Cattes' meaning 'wild cat'....


Castle Eden (County Durham)
The small village of Castle Eden lies to the south of Peterlee, about two and half miles from the sea. To the north of the village lies the Castle, which gives Castle Eden part of its name. The meaning of the word 'Eden' is however less clear. One suggestion is that it comes from the Celtic word for 'gushing', which was used to describe the small stream that runs through the area. Alternatively it may come from the Old English for 'God's Valley'....


Castleside (County Durham)
The village of Castleside was once part of the parish of Healeyfield, but it became a parish in its own right in 1873. The name Castleside is a recent one though to have come from the name of a local farmer called Castle. In 1806 after a visit by John Wesley in 1772 Watergate Chapel was built. The Church of England was opened in 1867. Healeyfield is the oldest township within the parish of Castleside now designated as an area of outstanding beauty. Records mentioning Healeyfield exist from 1170....


Chester-le-Street (County Durham)
The town of Chester-le-Street stands in a valley to the west of the River Wear about five miles to the north of Durham. Although this is an ancient and historic town, there are no remains from prehistory. A simple bronze axe has been discovered, but it was found along with Roman objects, and it may have been a souvenir found by a Roman soldier or civilian....


Cheviotside (Northumberland)
Ilderton parish lies in north Northumberland on the edge of the Cheviots. It stretches from the lower reaches of the Lilburn Burn in the east to the heights of Harehope Hill in the west and lies partly within Northumberland National Park. The upland slopes of the parish are covered with an amazing number of earthworks of prehistoric settlements and field systems, with a remarkable concentration on Brands Hill....


Cheviotside (Northumberland)
Roddam parish lies near the foot of the Cheviot Hills and contains widespread archaeological sites of all periods and much of historical interest....


Chilton (County Durham)
The small parish of Chilton lies in the south of County Durham, close to Darlington . For much of its history it was part of the larger parish of Ferryhill. However, by the early 20th century the construction of two collieries had led to a huge rise in the population of the area leading to the area becoming a parish in its own right....


Chollerton (Northumberland)
Chollerton is a large parish stretching from the River North Tyne to Hallington. There are wooded slopes, pasture and arable, as well as rough grassland fit for cattle and sheep grazing. Part of the parish boundary runs along the Roman road known as Dere Street....


Cleatlam (County Durham)
The small parish of Cleatlam lies in the south of County Durham, close to Staindrop, which it was once part of....


Coanwood (Northumberland)
Coanwood is nestled in the North Pennines Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. Archaeological remains in the parish date from the Roman period through to more recent times, but its strengths, archaeologically speaking, are for bastle houses and nonconformist chapels....


Coatham Mundeville (County Durham)
The village of Coatham Mundeville lies a few miles to the north of Darlington; it was once part of the larger parish of Haughton-le-Skerne. Until the construction of the modern A1, the Great North Road ran through the village....


Cockerton (County Durham)
The small village of Cockerton lies close to Darlington. The village is named after the Cocker Beck on which it stands. It was first recorded in 1050 in the Historia de Sancti Cuthberto, in which it was called Cocertun. Although a few Roman coins were found there are few other ancient remains....


Cockfield (County Durham)
The parish of Cockfield lies just to the north of Barnard Castle, not far from Middleton-in-Teesdale. To the north of the village of Cockfield runs Cockfield Fell, a large tract of land about 2 miles from east to west; it is bounded on its northern edge by the valley of the river Gaunless. This was common land, which was shared between the landowners of the parish. It was once worked for coal, but by the late 19th century most of the coal had been mined out, and instead Cockfield Fell became dominated by quarries from which whinstone was taken for use in road making....


Cold Hesledon (County Durham)
The village of Cold Hesledon lies in the east of County Durham, close to the north sea coast. Until the 1830s it was a rural, agricultural village, but in 1831 a {waggonway D808}running from a colliery at South Hetton to Seaham was built through the village. This was just the beginning of the growth of Cold Hesledon as an industrial village. In the 1880s the village began to increase in size as it became a home to many miners from nearby Murton Colliery. However, the remains of the places in which these miners lived now lie under an industrial estate. Perhaps the most impressive relic of Cold Hesledon's past are the Gothic remains of the former {pumping station D808}....


Consett (County Durham)
Until the 1840s Consett (or Conside as it was then known) was just a small village, and part of the nearby parish of Medomsley. Records record only three named houses and a couple of thatched cottages in what is now known as Sherburn Terrace. The name of the site probably ultimately comes from the Old English for 'side of the hilltop'. Although it has been suggested that there were Roman sites at Chesters and Broom Hill there is no firm evidence for settlement in the parish this early, though the remains of the Roman road known as Dere Street runs through the area....


Corbridge (Northumberland)
The archaeology of the Corbridge parish is dominated by two settlements: namely the Roman garrison town of Corstopitum and the later, medieval town of Corbridge, located slightly further east. As with so many river valley towns, these settlements grew up at crossing points of the River Tyne. The river valley was also an important route along which communication and movement occurred from the earliest times and the relatively large number of prehistoric sites and finds around Corbridge would suggest that this was an attractive area to settle for thousands of years before Roman soldiers ever set foot on British soil....


Cornforth (County Durham)
The small parish of Cornforth was formed in 1868 out of the larger parish of Bishop Middleham. The first record of the village dates to 1196, when it was recorded as Corneford, which probably comes from the Old English for 'Ford of the Cranes'. The village stood on the site of a ford crossing the river close to a fulling mill owned by the Bishop of Durham. There are few surviving remains from this period, though historic documents record that there was a limestone quarry, a cornmill and a fulling mill. It is even possible that a pele tower stood here in the 15th century, as an area of ground known as Le Peile is recorded, though the evidence is far from certain. Of slightly later date, Brandon House, dating to the 16th or 17th century, is still visible. However, 17th century Thrislington Hall was demolished in the 1980s and now only a few earthworks are visible....


Cornhill-on-Tweed (Northumberland)
Cornhill-on-Tweed lies in north Northumberland and, as its name suggests, lies alongside the banks of the River Tweed which here forms the border with Scotland. The name Cornhill derives from 'corn-haugh' and was described as a place in the midst of rich cornlands in the 19th century. The main settlement of the parish is the village of Cornhill, although there are numerous farmsteads spread across the land here. The concentration of arable farming in this area has led to the discovery of many archaeological sites through the technique of aerial photography. This has revealed cropmarks of new settlements and enclosures as well as land boundaries, such as pit alignments, in the west of the parish. Although their precise date is unknown, in many cases they are probably later prehistoric....


Cornsay (County Durham)
The village of Cornsay lies midway between Lanchester and Tow Law. It is often known locally as Old Cornsay, as nearby is the small pit village of Cornsay Colliery. The old village was first recorded in 1183, when it was known as Corneshow, which probably comes from the Old English for 'Crane's Heugh....


Corsenside (Northumberland)
The parish of Corsenside lies in central Northumberland. It is mainly high open moorland, with the commons of Corsenside, East Woodburn and Chesterhope encircling the settlements of East and West Woodburn. Through the middle of the parish runs the River Rede, on its way southwards to join the North Tyne near Bellingham. There is now no village of Corsenside, just a farmstead and a medieval church, with the main settlement of the parish now at West Woodburn. The name Corsenside is thought to derive from the Gaelic name 'Crossan.' The upland areas are rich in upstanding remains of all periods, from the Bronze Age to the 19th century....


Cotherstone (County Durham)
The village of Cotherstone lies in Teesdale at the point the River Balder joins with the Tees. It is just downstream from Romaldkirk, and only about 4km from Barnard Castle. There is a small network of lanes and passageways still stand around the village greens. Many of the older houses in the village were farmhouses and cottages, built in the 17th and early 18th centuries....


Coundon (County Durham)
The parish of Coundon lies a couple of miles to the east of Bishop Auckland. As well as the main village itself, there is also the 19th century industrial village of New Coundon, Coundon Grange and Coundongate. The name of the village comes from the Old English for 'Cow's Hill'. The houses were originally arranged in two rows along the main village street....


Coxhoe (County Durham)
The earliest artefact to be found in the area is a simple Bronze Age axe. Despite this early find there are few other remains from before the medieval period, although the Roman road known as Cade's Road does run through the parish....


Cramlington (Northumberland)
Cramlington, Horton and Plessey lie in south-east Northumberland in an area marked by the River Blyth in the north and the county boundary with North Tyneside in the south....


Craster (Northumberland)
The parish of Craster lies midway along the Northumberland coast, with a rocky coastline on one side and rolling fields on the other. A whinstone ridge runs through the parish from Craster Heughs to Scrog Hill and sloping beds of whinstone also form the rocky coast. The village of Craster has grown up around a natural haven, now enhanced by an early 20th century harbour. From the village, views along the coastline are dominated by the remains of Dunstanburgh Castle which lies a short walk to the north. Craster is famous for its traditionally oak smoked kippers and salmon....


Cresswell (Northumberland)
Cresswell parish is located on the Northumberland coast just south of the wide sweep of Druridge Bay. The parish contains archaeological remains stretching back over 6000 years, although most visible to anyone passing through the parish is the medieval tower on the edge of a caravan park....


Crook (County Durham)
The town of Crook lies about 10 miles to the south west of Durham, and the bottom end of Weardale....


Crookhall (County Durham)
The small village of Crook Hall stands just to the south-east of Consett. The earliest records of settlement in this area date to the medieval period, when a site called 'Crokhough' was recorded - this placename probably comes from the Old English for 'flat land by the bend in the river'. The medieval manor house at Crookhall was first mentioned in documents dating to around 1180. However, no remains of this early manor house can be seen, though the ruins of a later manor house can still be seen close to the farm. Early maps show a probable medieval fishpond nearby.


Croxdale (County Durham)
The village of Croxdale lies about half way between Durham and Spennymoor. The river Wear runs along the north side of the parish, and is crossed by a series of impressive bridges....
A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P Q R S T U W