Keys to the Past

Berwick Castle (Berwick upon Tweed)

The remains of Berwick Castle stand on a steep rise above the mouth of the River Tweed. It was first built in the 12th century, although most of the remains that can be seen today were added in the late 13th century or later. When King Edward I captured the town during his wars with the Scots he added many towers and some wall to the building. During these wars the castle was captured and re-captured by England and Scotland. It was only in 1482 that England finally captured it for good. Soldiers were kept at the castle until 1603 when the Act of Union joined together the kingdoms of England and Scotland. Much of the wood and stone from the castle was moved to build the church of Holy Trinity in the mid 17th century. The ruined castle was held by a number of owners until more of it was demolished in the mid-19th century to make way for the railway which linked England and Scotland. Recent work by archaeologists has discovered that remains of the medieval castle survive beneath the station car park, including a substantial stone wall that linked the castle with the medieval town wall. This is a Grade I Listed Building and a Scheduled Monument protected by law.

Reference number:N2424
Historical period: Post Medieval (1540 to 1901)
Medieval (1066 to 1540)
Legal status:Conservation area
Listed Building
Scheduled Ancient Monument
Event(s):WATCHING BRIEF, Berwick Railway Station car park 1999; TYNE AND WEAR MUSEUMS
DESK BASED ASSESSMENT, Berwick Railway Station. Archaeological Assessment 2000; TYNE AND WEAR MUSEUMS
WATCHING BRIEF, Berwick Railway Station reorganisation of car park 2001; THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL PRACTICE
TRIAL TRENCH, Berwick Railway Station car park 2002; PRE-CONSTRUCT ARCHAEOLOGY
GROUND PENETRATING RADAR SURVEY, Station car park, Berwick-upon-Tweed 2002; STRATSCAN
TRIAL TRENCH, Berwick Railway Station Car Park 2003; PRE-CONSTRUCT ARCHAEOLOGY
WATCHING BRIEF, Berwick-upon-Tweed Railway Station 2003; TYNE AND WEAR MUSEUMS
WATCHING BRIEF, Berwick-upon-Tweed fortifications 2009; Northern Archaeological Associates
HERITAGE ASSESSMENT, English Heritage Coastal Estate: risk assessment 2011; English Heritage

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See also:
Source of Reference
Local History of Berwick upon Tweed

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Please note that this information has been compiled from a number of different sources. Durham County Council and Northumberland County Council can accept no responsibility for any inaccuracy contained therein. If you wish to use/copy any of the images, please ensure that you read the Copyright information provided.