Newton-by-the-Sea is a coastal parish in north Northumberland.
The oldest find in the parish is a Neolithic stone axe made of rock from the Lake District. The find implies some tree clearance and some form of exchange or trade.
The oldest settlement in the parish is an Iron Age enclosure on Dunstan Hill. Other enclosures near Doxford, at Coastguard Cottage and Whinny Plantation may also be remains of Iron Age or Roman period settlements. Such settlements were probably home to an extended family group, living in circular huts of stone or timber with a yard in front for animals. The discovery of a quern at Pond Field shows that grains were grown and processed.
The medieval period has left more evidence both physically in the landscape and in historic documents. Earthworks of ridge and furrow ploughing can be seen at High Newton and Newton Links. People lived in villages at Doxford, Falloden and Brunton and a typical medieval village plan can be seen at Newton-by-the-Sea.
The Agricultural Revolution led to a changes in agriculture from the soil up. Fertiliser was produced in lime kilns at Newtonbarns and Rock Mill. Increased yields may have led to the need for granaries and other developments in farming led to new planned farms being built, such as Doxford Farm.
Three pillboxes from World War II (1939-45) guard the beach at Newton Links.
Please note that this information has been compiled from a number of different sources. Durham County Council and Northumberland County Council can accept no responsibility for any inaccuracy contained therein. If you wish to use/copy any of the images, please ensure that you read the Copyright information provided.